var googletag = googletag || {}; googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; googletag.cmd.push(function() { googletag.pubads().disableInitialLoad(); });
device = device.default;
//this function refreshes [adhesion] ad slot every 60 second and makes prebid bid on it every 60 seconds // Set timer to refresh slot every 60 seconds function setIntervalMobile() { if (! return if (adhesion) setInterval(function(){ googletag.pubads().refresh([adhesion]); }, 60000); } if(device.desktop()) { googletag.cmd.push(function() { leaderboard_top = googletag.defineSlot('/22018898626/LC_Article_detail_page', [468, 60], 'div-gpt-ad-1591620860846-0').setTargeting('pos', ['1']).setTargeting('div_id', ['leaderboard_top']).addService(googletag.pubads()); googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(); googletag.enableServices(); }); } else if(device.tablet()) { googletag.cmd.push(function() { leaderboard_top = googletag.defineSlot('/22018898626/LC_Article_detail_page', [320, 50], 'div-gpt-ad-1591620860846-0').setTargeting('pos', ['1']).setTargeting('div_id', ['leaderboard_top']).addService(googletag.pubads()); googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(); googletag.enableServices(); }); } else if( { googletag.cmd.push(function() { leaderboard_top = googletag.defineSlot('/22018898626/LC_Article_detail_page', [320, 50], 'div-gpt-ad-1591620860846-0').setTargeting('pos', ['1']).setTargeting('div_id', ['leaderboard_top']).addService(googletag.pubads()); googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(); googletag.enableServices(); }); } googletag.cmd.push(function() { // Enable lazy loading with... googletag.pubads().enableLazyLoad({ // Fetch slots within 5 viewports. // fetchMarginPercent: 500, fetchMarginPercent: 100, // Render slots within 2 viewports. // renderMarginPercent: 200, renderMarginPercent: 100, // Double the above values on mobile, where viewports are smaller // and users tend to scroll faster. mobileScaling: 2.0 }); });

A Look at Three New Books that Reflect on the Brown v. Board Decision

( 15 votes, average: 4.4 out of 5)
What do you think about this article? Rate it using the stars above and let us know what you think in the comments below.
In All Deliberate Speed: Reflections on the First Half-Century of Brown v. Board of Education, Professor Charles Ogletree says that the failure of integration and equality in race relations is not the failure of African-Americans or some "amorphous sense of Black entitlement;" rather it is due to the failure of White America to live up to the ideals of "Reconstruction" or the "Great Society." Professor Ogletree considers Brown a bold decision that ultimately failed because of three words: "all deliberate speed."

Professor Ogletree said that the pursuit for integration in American higher education has also not been achieved. Although Michigan cases upheld affirmative action in higher education, Professor Ogletree posits that they fail to dispense with the "all deliberate speed" mindset that was adopted in the Brown case. He further asserts that although the Supreme Court did not raise further obstacles to Brown's legacy of integration and equality, it also did very little to further the mandate of Brown in these cases.

Professor Ogletree also touches on the controversial issue of reparations. To him, reparations are a valid way for African-Americans to collect their "debt" from America. He believes that reparations are justified in light of American society's failure to adopt the ideals set out in Brown. According to the author, many African-Americans have not benefited from the legacy of Brown or from affirmative actions already in place. The "all deliberate speed" or "go-slow" attitude of the United States towards integration and equality and not providing quality education to African-Americans has created the impetus for a lawsuit that wants compensation for the culpable role of the United States in using slave labor to build a strong economy.

In Beyond Brown v. Board: The Final Battle for Excellence in American Education, Ellis Cose states that on the 50th anniversary of Brown, the pursuit for excellence of African-Americans in American school systems is far from complete. Mr. Cose claims that to level the playing field in education, we must provide more resources to poor schoolchildren than to privileged schoolchildren, even if that means that states must spend more on poor schools than on rich schools.

Mr. Cose also points to South Africa, where the emphasis on school education is not on desegregation but rather on improving segregated schools. Mr. Cose acknowledges that integrated schools are important because in the Untied States, that is where the bulk of the money is found. Mr. Cose asserts, however, that rather than forcing integration at all cost on an unwilling society, we should fund and improve poor schools where there is usually a large minority population. Mr. Cose asserts that we need to improve the schools in the communities where African-Americans live so that parents are able to be active participants in their children's education.

In Silent Covenants: Brown v. Board of Education and the Unfulfilled Hopes for Racial Reform, Professor Derrick Bell states that Brown was a decision that "promised so much but accomplished little." Professor Bell provocatively argues that the Brown decision was a post-World War II decision that served to improve the United States' standing in the world. For the United States to extol the virtues of democracy and the evils of communism, the Brown decision was important to international relations, in order to have the upper hand in the moral war with the Russians. The United States could not have the Russians derisively pointing to it as a democratic country that allowed certain sectors of its population to remain repressed and legally discriminated against. To that end, many amicus briefs were filed in the Brown case pointing out the international ramifications of legalized discrimination jeopardizing the United States' standing in the world.

Professor Bell further states that standing alone, racial discrimination is insufficient to make the government act and that relief from racial discrimination is only obtained when it benefits American society. Professor Bell posits that African-Americans are "third-party beneficiaries." Racial injustice has never been the major motivation for "racial remedial policies," but rather, it is the apparent self-interest of whites that has prompted a change in policy, thus making justice for African-Americans only incidental.

Overall, all three authors view the Brown decision as reluctantly embracing the ideals of integration and equality. To be sure, the authors also agree that Brown laid the foundation for the civil rights movement and gave validity to African-American claims of equality as Americans. The authors also conclude that African-Americans are certainly better off now than before the Brown decision. However, Brown's goal of integration and equality in the African-American community is still the exception rather than the rule.

Featured Testimonials

The features on LawCrossing are really excellent, and the best of them are the e-mail alerts.


LawCrossing Fact #214: We are constantly looking to improve our site and welcome suggestions from visitors who have ideas about how we can make their experiences even better.

Let's Do It!

Only LawCrossing consolidates every job it can find in the legal industry and puts all of the job listings it locates in one place.

  • We have more than 25 times as many legal jobs as any other job board.
  • We list jobs you will not find elsewhere that are hidden in small regional publications and employer websites.
  • We collect jobs from more than 250,000 websites and post them on our site.
  • Increase your chances of being seen! Employers on public job boards get flooded with applications. Our private job boards ensure that only members can apply to our job postings.

Success Stories

I came back to LawCrossing to search through the listings in my new job search because I had been able to get my last 2 jobs through using the site. I love the search capacity and filters. This is a very valuable service.
  • Jennifer Guidea Bloomfield, NJ

Everyone Loves LawCrossing

LawCrossing is great at picking up all of the legal listings everywhere across the internet. I could have gone to three different sites to search, but you had them all on your site. That was extremely helpful. LawCrossing is a one stop shop!
  • Eileen Baca-Penner New Mexico
+ Read More Success Stories
  • All we do is research jobs
  • Our team of researchers, programmers, and analysts find you jobs from over 50,000 career pages and other sources
  • Our members get more interviews and jobs than people who use "public job boards"